Early in human history, we did not need to keep score. In a world where it was every person for themselves, what mattered most was whether any particular individual garnered enough resources to survive in the short term. People lived day to day...really. The ability to accumulate resources and to trade created a whole new world, but it created both opportunity and peril.
Exchange is central to the accumulation of wealth. Free exchange in the engine which allows for resources created by one party to end up in the hands of another party where they are used to create greater value. Win-win exchanges are how wealth is created. When trade was simple, it was easy to track. When exchanges became more complicated, it became more difficult to track who owed what to who. Fast and furious exchange may create the appearance of wealth creation where no additional value is actually created.
Oddly enough, the driver of this is as old as civilization. When the Natufians created permanent settlements, they no longer left their old and infirmed to die. Those who produced also took on the obligation for those who were no longer able to do so. Plenty served to be a trap by creating an explosion of population and quickly resources were outstripped by numbers. The was the curse of sedentism. There were no retirement accounts, just hard assets such as food and shelter When there was not enough, people died of starvation or exposure. There was no way to game this system. They had to create more resources or people died.
Human ingenuity has driven the expansion of resources to where famine is seen only where it is used as a brutal weapon of political repression. However, the impact of sedentism remains with us, albeit in a markedly different form. In the simplest sense, sedentism is the product of societies where social norms allow for segments of the population incapable of creating resources which they ultimately "need" and can lay clam on.
Our present approach to addressing this resource mismatch is to use a state driven Ponzi scheme. It may work for a while if the mismatch is small enough, or if increases in subsequent productivity offset the mismatch, or if inflation devalues the mismatch, or if you can find new "investors" who will fund this for a while. However, we are still ultimately limited by what is deliverable within the world of the possible, but it may be more difficult to see when the resources will be depleted and when the "investors" will stop funding the Ponzi scheme. Using a Ponzi like scheme may work for a while and create the illusion of real wealth but it cannot work forever.